An Advisory Pool

A Mathematical Proof of the Singularity
by Steve Morris

AdvisoryThe author, inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil has written about the technological singularity, a time when he predicts things will change so rapidly that he likens it to a mathematical singularity. In particular, he postulates the invention of an artificial intelligence capable of re-designing itself, which will inevitably lead to ever-faster progress.

To back up his theory, Kurzweil likes to show exponential curves representing the ever-faster development of computer processor performance, the price of transistors, DNA sequencing costs and such like.

But just how mathematically rigorous is this theory? Is it right to speak of a singularity occurring some time in the middle of the 21st century?

Students of cosmology know that genuine singularities are places where scary stuff happens. Especially naked singularities, which I cannot illustrate here for the sake of public decency. It is not a term to be treated lightly. In this article, I am going to prove that if Kurzweil’s prediction of strong AI is true, then a genuine singularity will occur, and in a surprising way, quite unlike popular thinking on the matter.

Let us suppose that there are an infinite number of inventions that people could ever invent. And by people I mean not just humans, but also alien civilisations, robots and any other class of inventive being. Let us number these inventions starting with 1 (a method for starting a fire, perhaps), then 2 (a method for avoiding burning your fingers), and so on.

Now let us assume, as Kurzweil’s exponential graphs indicate, that the time interval between inventions becomes ever smaller as more inventions are made. This is logical, because the more inventions that are available to an inventor, the easier it is to invent something new. Also, the smarter an AI becomes, the easier it is for it to invent an even-smarter version of itself. This is the key assumption in Kurzweil’s theory.

Now, here comes the tricky mathematical part. If the time between inventions becomes ever smaller as the number of inventions increases, then the total time taken to invent all possible inventions is finite. I will call this time T.

The proof of this is analogous to the resolution of Zeno’s paradox of Achilles and the tortoise. Zeno, the Greek philosopher, who believed that change is an illusion, outlined the following thought experiment. The great warrior Achilles is in a race against the tortoise and the tortoise is given a head start. If both runners start at the same time, then by the time Achilles reaches the starting point of the tortoise, the ponderous tortoise will have moved forward some distance less than Achilles, but will still be in front. By the time Achilles reaches the tortoise’s new position, the tortoise will have moved forward again. It will require an infinite number of steps for Achilles to catch up with the tortoise.

Of course, the paradox is easily resolved by realising that the time taken to complete each one of these infinite steps grows progressively shorter. Simple calculus shows that Achilles will overtake the tortoise after a finite time T.

The situation is precisely analogous to the question of invention. Although the number of possible inventions is infinite, if the time taken between inventions becomes progressively shorter, then after a time T, everything that can be invented will have been invented. This includes all possible books, all conceivable works of art, an infinite number of cat memes and even the flying car. And the time T is not infinitely far in the future, but is finite and in principle calculable.

Such a time has been prophesied by various cultures and religions throughout history. It has been called Ragnarok, The Twilight of the Gods and the End of Days, but in this article I will call it “T time”.

So, after T time there will be literally nothing to do, as everything interesting will already have been done. This is the true singularity, and it is not a time when things are changing ever more rapidly, but when they have changed so much that no further change is possible. In a neatly ironic way, it is a time when Zeno’s belief that change is impossible will become true.

Some people may think of this as a utopia, but it is really just time for taking a quiet nap after T.

Steve MorrisAbout the author: Steve Morris studied Physics at the University of Oxford but discovered that writing about other people’s ideas is easier than having original ones yourself. He now writes about awesome technology at S21 and shares random thoughts at Blog Blogger Bloggest.

James D. Miller on Singularity 1 on 1: Prepare for a Smarter World
by Socrates

James D. MillerJames D. Miller is a professor of economics and, most recently, the author of Singularity Rising: Surviving and Thriving in a Smarter, Richer, and More Dangerous World .

James is the second economist on Singularity 1 on 1 and he respects and agrees with much of Robin Hanson‘s conclusions.

In my view, however, Miller’s book Singularity Rising ends up presenting a much richer, more diverse, more balanced, more interesting and, in some ways, more utopian future. [e.g. see his ideas about "honorable unemployment"]

During our conversation with James D. Miller we cover a variety of topics such as: how he started studying theoretical physics but ended up in economics; academia, the technological singularity and Miller’s definition thereof; his recent book Singularity Rising; “honorable unemployment”; the Fermi paradox and our civilization’s chance of surviving; neurofeedback and other cognitive enhancements used by James; capitalism, freedom and radical changes in the economic system.

(As always you can listen to or download the audio file above, or scroll down and watch the video interview in full. If you want to help me produce more episodes please make a donation)

Who is James D. Miller?

James D. Miller is an associate professor of economics at Smith College and was a speaker at the 2008 Singularity Summit. He has a JD from Stanford where he was on Law Review and a PhD from the University of Chicago where his dissertation advisor was a Nobel Prize winner. He is a columnist for BetterInvesting Magazine and regularly wrote for during the tech bubble. The Singularity Institute called Miller’s work “important” and relevant to its core mission. Singularity Rising

The Singularity is NearIn Ray Kurzweil’s New York Times bestseller The Singularity is Near, the futurist and entrepreneur describes the singularity, a likely future utterly different than anything we can imagine. The singularity is triggered by the tremendous growth of human and computing intelligence that is an almost inevitable outcome of Moore’s Law. Since the book’s publication, the coming of singularity is now eagerly anticipated by many of the leading thinkers in Silicon Valley, from PayPal mastermind Peter Thiel to Google co-founder Larry Page. The formation of the Singularity University, and the huge popularity of the singularity website, speak to the importance of this intellectual movement.

But, what about the average person? How will the singularity affect our daily lives—our jobs, our families, and our wealth?

Singularity Rising: Surviving and Thriving in a Smarter, Richer, and More Dangerous World focuses on the implications of a future society faced with an abundance of human and artificial intelligence. James D. Miller, an economics professor and popular speaker on the singularity, reveals how natural selection has been increasing human intelligence over the past few thousand years and speculates on how intelligence enhancements will shape civilization over the next forty years.

Miller considers several possible scenarios in this coming singularity:

A merger of man and machine making society fantastically wealthy and nearly immortal.

Competition with billions of cheap AIs drive human wages to almost nothing while making investors rich.

Businesses rethink investment decisions to take into account an expected future period of intense creative destruction.

Inequality drops worldwide as technologies mitigate the cognitive cost of living in impoverished environments.

Drugs designed to fight Alzheimer’s disease and keep soldiers alert on battlefields have the fortunate side effect of increasing all of their users’ IQs, which, in turn, adds a percentage point to worldwide economic growth…

Tagged as: James D. Miller, singularity rising

Robin Hanson on Singularity 1 on 1 (part 2): Social Science or Extremist Politics in Disguise?!
by Socrates

Interview with economist Robin Hanson was by far the most vigorous debate ever on Singularity 1 on 1. I have to say that I have rarely disagreed more with any of my podcast guests before. So, why do I get so fired up about Robin’s ideas you may ask?!

Well, here is just one reason why I do:

“The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly believed. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. Madmen in authority, who hear voices in the air, are distilling their frenzy from some academic scribbler of a few years back. I am sure that the power of vested interests is vastly exaggerated compared with the gradual encroachment of ideas. Soon or late, it is ideas, not vested interests, which are dangerous for good or evil.”

John Maynard Keynes “The General theory of Employment, Interest and Money”

To be even clearer, I believe that it is ideas like Robin’s that may, and often do, have a direct impact on our future.

And so, I am very conflicted. Ever since I finished recording my second interview with Hanson I have been torn inside:

On the one hand, I really like Robin a lot: He is that most likeable fellow, from the trailer of The Methuselah Generation: The Science of Living Forever, who like me, would like to live forever and is in support of cryonics. In addition, Hanson is also clearly a very intelligent person with a diverse background and education in physics, philosophy, computer programming, artificial intelligence and economics. He’s got a great smile and, as you will see throughout the interview, is apparently very gracious to my verbal attacks on his ideas.

On the other hand, after reading his book draft on the Em Economy, I believe that some of his suggestions have much less to do with social science and much more with his libertarian bias and what I will call “an extremist politics in disguise.”

So, here is, the way I see it, the gist of our disagreement:

I say that there is no social science that, in between the lines of its economic reasoning, can logically or reasonably suggest details such as: policies of social discrimination and collective punishment; the complete privatization of law, detection of crime, punishment and adjudication; that some should be run 1,000 times faster than others, while at the same time giving them 1,000 times more voting power; that emulations who can’t pay for their storage fees should be either restored from previous back-ups or be outright deleted (isn’t this like saying that if you fail to pay your rent you should be shot dead?!)…

Suggestions like the above are no mere details: they are extremist bias for Laissez-faire ideology while dangerously masquerading as (impartial) social science.

During the 2007 OSCON conference Robin Hanson said:

“It’s [Bias] much worse than you think. And, you think you are doing something about it and you are not.”

I will go on to claim that Prof. Hanson himself is indeed a prime example of exhibiting precisely such a bias, while at the same time thinking he is not. Because not only that he doesn’t give any justification for the above suggestions of his, but also because, in principle, no social science could ever give justification for issues which are profoundly ethical and political in nature. (Thus you can say that I am in a way arguing about the proper limits, scope and sphere of economics, where using its tools can give us any worthy and useful insights for the benefit of our whole society. That is why the “father of economics” – Adam Smith, was a moral philosopher.)

I also agree with Robin’s final message during out first interview – namely that “details matter.” And so it is for this reason that I paid attention and was so irked by some of the side “details” in his book’s draft.

The two quotes that I will no doubt remember – one from Robin’s book draft and another one, that frankly shocked me during our second interview, are the quotes that I respectively, absolutely like and agree with, and totally hate and find completely abhorrent: “We can’t do anything about the past, however. People often excuse this by saying that we know a lot more about the past. But modest efforts have often given substantial insights into our future, and we would know much more about the future if we tried harder.”

The Third Reich will be a democracy by now!” (Yes, you can give Robin the benefit of the doubt for he said this in the midst of our vigorous argument. On the other hand, as Hanson says – “details do matter.”)

So, my question to you is this: Is Robin Hanson’s upcoming book on the Em Economy social science or extremist politics in disguise?!

To answer this properly, I would recommend that you see both the first and the second interview, read Robin’s book when it comes out, and be the judge for yourself. Either way, don’t hesitate to let me know what you think and, in particular, where and how I am either misunderstanding and/or misrepresenting Prof. Hanson’s work and ideas.

(As always you can listen to or download the audio file above, or scroll down and watch the video interview in full. If you want to help me produce more episodes please make a donation)

Who is Robin Hanson?

Robin Hanson is an associate professor of economics at George Mason University, a research associate at the Future of Humanity Institute of Oxford University, and chief scientist at Consensus Point. After receiving his Ph.D. in social science from the California Institute of Technology in 1997, Robin was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation health policy scholar at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1984, Robin received a masters in physics and a masters in the philosophy of science from the University of Chicago, and afterward spent nine years researching artificial intelligence, Bayesian statistics, and hypertext publishing at Lockheed, NASA, and independently.

Robin has over 70 publications, including articles in Applied Optics, Business Week, CATO Journal, Communications of the ACM, Economics Letters, Econometrica, Economics of Governance, Extropy, Forbes, Foundations of Physics, IEEE Intelligent Systems, Information Systems Frontiers, Innovations, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Journal of Evolution and Technology, Journal of Law Economics and Policy, Journal of Political Philosophy, Journal of Prediction Markets, Journal of Public Economics, Medical Hypotheses, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Public Choice, Social Epistemology, Social Philosophy and Policy, Theory and Decision, and Wired.

Robin has pioneered prediction markets, also known as information markets or idea futures, since 1988. He was the first to write in detail about people creating and subsidizing markets in order to gain better estimates on those topics. Robin was a principal architect of the first internal corporate markets, at Xanadu in 1990, of the first web markets, the Foresight Exchange since 1994, and of DARPA’s Policy Analysis Market, from 2001 to 2003. Robin has developed new technologies for conditional, combinatorial, and intermediated trading, and has studied insider trading, manipulation, and other foul play. Robin has written and spoken widely on the application of idea futures to business and policy, being mentioned in over one hundred press articles on the subject, and advising many ventures, including GuessNow, Newsfutures, Particle Financial, Prophet Street, Trilogy Advisors, XPree, YooNew, and undisclosable defense research projects. He is now chief scientist at Consensus Point.

Robin has diverse research interests, with papers on spatial product competition, health incentive contracts, group insurance, product bans, evolutionary psychology and bioethics of health care, voter information incentives, incentives to fake expertise, Bayesian classification, agreeing to disagree, self-deception in disagreement, probability elicitation, wiretaps, image reconstruction, the history of science prizes, reversible computation, the origin of life, the survival of humanity, very long term economic growth, growth given machine intelligence, and interstellar colonization.

Don’t risk dying before the “Singularity”. Sign-up for Cryonics Now!!


The God Switch

God’s power to grant ETERNAL LIFE

stolen by stem cell scientists in California

Heaven’s Been Robbed!

With the flip of a switch, doctors will make the human body heal and regenerate itself — quickly, painlessly and naturally.

Imagine what your life would be like… how much money you could earn…

if you become… IMMORTAL!

A California biotech company has deciphered not only the genetic code that stops and then reverses aging... It has also patented a technology enabling it to flip a genetic switch within our DNA, the "God Switch".

This may ignite a fireball of controversy — possibly worldwide protests that could make the violence in the Islamic world over portrayals of Muhammad seem genteel by comparison.

Because, it too, has tremendous religious implications:

Some will say it’s blasphemous and sacrilegious — that it discredits the importance and power of God.

No doubt major health care corporations and pharmaceutical giants, here and abroad, will start a bidding war — competing for the right to license this revolutionary technology, if not purchase these biotech companies outright. The Biotech world is on the verge of a miracle of scientific discovery — proof that scientists could accomplish what was previously thought impossible… what many in the world will believe is a violation of God’s will.

A chance to live forever and remain forever young: practical, real immortality.

Let me first quote a headline that appeared in the Los Angeles Times in 1998 when early test results were first revealed:

“Scientists Give Cell Apparent Immortality.”

Another newspaper wrote:

“Firm Finds Fountain of Youth for Human Cells”

And the Oakland Tribune wrote:

“Researchers Immortalize Human Cells.”

That was then, of course, when the science was still, for lack of a better word, immature, and not ready to be commercialized.

Dr. Sanjay Gupta, CNN’s chief medical correspondent and President Obama’s nominee for surgeon general in 2009 said, “I think in the next couple of decades, we’re going to get to a point of practical immortality.”

Little did he realize then how the decades could be compressed into a few short years?

Today, the laboratory doors have swung open again!

And now we can see how far the science has evolved.

A biotech company, BioTime, has deciphered not only the genetic code that stops, and then reverses aging… It has also patented a technology enabling it to flip a genetic switch within our DNA, what many now call the “God Switch”…Which may make human cells immortal.

They do not — will not die.

Indeed, it appears that every time the God Switch is flipped, it returns the aged, tired, worn-out cells of your body to the biologically pristine state they were on day one — the day you were born. One company has already been granted hundreds of patents related to the God Switch. Nevertheless, FDA approval is a near certainty, as no drugs are involved. As you will see, to flip the God Switch, no foreign or unnatural substance is used or introduced into the body.

Indeed, the remarkable thing about stem cell therapeutics is that it doesn’t require the invention of new drugs with unknown side effects. This new technology can lead us to products and therapies that could free us from many diseases and afflictions that plague or kill us. These include heart disease, cancer, and arthritis, to name just a few.

Today, in the United States, it’s estimated that 73% of the population — more than 200 million people — will die of heart failure, cancer or stroke. In fact, 2,000 Americans die of heart disease every day. But what if, starting tomorrow, the number could be brought down closer to zero.

One company owns the technology that could make it possible.

The scientists working at this company, and one scientist in particular, think they have, in essence, discovered how to regenerate the human body — to make it heal and renew itself — quickly, painlessly and naturally. They have harnessed the power that exists within all of us to cure disease, prevent disease and, ultimately, eliminate aging.

It’s the biggest discovery in the history of modern medicine, if not medicine itself.

The scientists working for and collaborating with BioTime are some of the most respected names in the field of regenerative medicine. In fact, the owner of BioTime, Dr. Michael West who is also its lead scientist, is often referred to as the father of regenerative medicine.

His area of focus: stem cell therapeutics.

Unlike all the other cells in your body: skin cells, heart cells, brain cells… stem cells are, for the most part, blanks. In scientific terms, they are unpotentiated. In other words, their fate has not yet been determined.

They are waiting to be programmed by your DNA to become heart cells, skin cells, bone cells and all the other thousands of cell types that exist in your body.

And that ability to be programmed… can now be directed and manipulated in this company’s laboratory. This is a miraculous breakthrough. Once, it was only theoretically possible. Today, it’s not only possible — it’s actually being done.

Imagine… stem cells that can be programmed to replace aged, damaged or diseased hearts, brains and lungs, and even limbs, joints and skin.

Yet ironically, the greatest strides in stem cell research made by BioTime and other biotech companies came only after “human embryonic” stem cell research was banned.

At the time, it was believed only embryonic stem cells could cure the tens of millions of people suffering from devastating and deadly diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Embryonic stem cell therapy is actually a false messiah — and a dead end.

It has two flaws, two existential barriers that cannot be overcome.

The first barrier is supply and demand.

If embryonic stem cell therapies were actually developed and proven successful, where would all those 100 million human embryos come from?

The second barrier is our immune system.

Because embryonic stem cells are, in effect, foreign bodies, our immune system will, in most cases, reject them.

The cure, then, would be worse than the disease.

A raft of new companies arose, seeking to use non-embryonic “adult” stem cells for their research. The sort found in bone marrow and skin. It made sense.

If you cut your skin, stem cells immediately kick in and fix the damage. Similarly, if you donate a pint of blood, you have stem cells in your marrow that crank up the production of new blood cells. This is actual proof of the regenerative capability of our bodies.

Only a limited number of adult stem cell types exist. Your heart, eyes, brain, knee cartilage and kidneys, for example, don’t possess stem cells.

The passing of our DNA from one generation to the next is proof that a part of us can continue on forever.

What if there was a mechanism within our DNA, a genetic code that could reverse-engineer any adult cell in our body into an embryonic-like stem cell?

In a few short years, after countless twists and turns, scientists have actually found that very mechanism!

Four genes within our DNA were found that can be manipulated to turn any adult cells — skin cells, for example — into embryonic-like stem cells.

In 2007, Japanese researcher Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, and a researcher from the University of Wisconsin, James Thomson, published papers showing that these four genes could actually transform adult human cells into an embryonic-like state.

They were awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries..

Because the cells used did not come from discarded embryos, the reprogrammed cells were not called “embryonic stem cells” but were, instead, named “induced pluripotent stem cells,” or iPS cells for short.

iPS cells immediately lit a fire under the scientific community.

Like embryonic stem cells, they have the potential to make all the cells of the human body.

But, unlike embryonic stem cells, they won’t be rejected. Because, they’re the patient’s own cells.

Moreover, because they’re the patient’s own cells — neither embryo nor egg cells — iPS cells are also noncontroversial.

Nevertheless, there was a problem with this approach as well, and it was a big one…

To turn adult cells into iPS cells, the four genes had to be inserted into the adult cells. But, they couldn’t merely be dropped in. They had to be carried in.

And the carrier vehicle Dr. Yamanaka used to introduce these genes into the adult cells was a virus.

Though the type of virus used was dormant, it was obvious the FDA would never allow an unstable and unpredictable biological agent, a virus associated with cancer, no less, to be used in human therapies. It was determined, too, that the process by which the virus and the four genes were inserted is destructive to the cell on a submicroscopic level.

And over time, it usually resulted in the cell’s death.

It was another dead end.

Ironically, Dr. Yamanaka was just awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in medicine for his work — work that, in fact, doesn’t work.

And what does that prove?

Stem cell research has now earned the respect it richly deserves. It’s no longer controversial or morally reprehensible. Therefore, interest in stem cell research will be renewed.

Regenerative medicine, and stem cell companies, in particular, will again become the darlings of Wall Street.

Because Dr. Yamanaka’s process of inserting the four genes into an adult cell to create iPS cells appeared to be another dead end…

If there was one way to create an iPS cell, there had to be another.

And soon enough, it was Dr. West’s team at BioTime who found it — and far quicker than anyone could’ve imagined.

The research team realized that if other animals (certain mammals, fish and reptiles, for example) could self-regenerate — grow new limbs or tails and repair damaged internal organs — it wasn’t impossible.

And we should, therefore, given the right conditions, be able to do the same.

Enter the one gene that rules them all — the God Switch!

Making this as non-technical as possible:

Our DNA is, in a very real sense, a software program. It is also locked and encrypted. Otherwise, the genes that make up our DNA could be manipulated and even corrupted by unintended outside forces or influences — viruses, for example. Yet, we know the encryption code protecting our DNA can be turned off.

And, we know this because when cells multiply — when we grow taller or build muscle, for example — our cells are dividing and making exact replicas of themselves. This means the DNA is also dividing and replicating itself so it can be passed into the new cell, as this diagram illustrates:

Advisory-Board But, for the DNA to replicate and pass into a new cell, encryption must be turned off.

Finding the encryption key — in other words, the gene or genes responsible for encryption — could unlock the cell and instruct it to return to its embryonic state — just as Yamanaka did using a virus.

Easier said than done, of course.

The human genome contains approximately 20,000 genes; not all of which are understood, much less their millions of possible combinations. Basically, this is finding “a needle in a haystack” — a haystack the size of Mount Everest.

After analyzing gene “expressions” from numerous cancerous and healthy cells, this scientific team noticed that one particular gene, named SP100, was not activated in cancer cells.

There is now found evidence in various studies that the author / researchers had clearly failed to understand — that SP100 is indeed the encryption key for the human cell.

In other words, when the SP100 gene is deactivated, the human cell is unencrypted.

DNA is then available for genetic modification, good or ill.

Meaning if SP100 is deactivated, cells could mutate and become cancerous.

But it also means…

Cancerous cells might be cured when SP100 is reactivated!

And, of course, by deactivating SP100, Dr. West and his team at BioTime could now take any adult cell in your body and return it to its embryonic-like state — make it a pure and healthy stem cell, an iPS cell.

A quick side note: BioTime is now on the threshold of using gene SP100 to screen patients for cancer before they actually develop cancer, and even cure cancer if they already have it.

What still had to be accomplished was successfully directing an iPS cell to become any one of the 200-plus types of cells within the human body.

And, now that too has been done.

In other words, biologically, their age was the same as that of the patient.

And, that’s a problem — a big problem.

Because if we were to take skin cells from a 65-year-old patient who had suffered a heart attack — in which heart muscle had been damaged or destroyed — and turned those skin cells into iPS heart cells...

Those iPS heart cells would be 65 years old.

In essence, researchers needed to reverse cellular aging — to make an iPS cell as young as a newborn baby.

Many in the scientific community felt that this final hurdle was trying to accomplish the impossible.

What is impossible today can be possible tomorrow.

Based on previous scientific studies, there must also be a gene that controls aging — and if scientists could crack its genetic code, they could stop, and even reverse, aging. And, the proof that this was, indeed, possible was cancer.

Cancer cells do not age. They are, in medical terms, immortal. They continue to replicate without end; they do not die. The only way they will die is if they’re killed or the host body dies.

Following the breadcrumbs left behind by previous research, it took Dr. West and BioTime a few years to find this “immortalizing gene” and crack its code.

But, find it and crack it they did.

The research team successfully immortalized an iPS cell — it became ageless and continued to replicate without end.

After published these findings, CNBC immediately asked to interview Dr. West so he could explain why his company’s stock had more than doubled overnight.

The rest of the world’s press was also quick to pick up on this impossible breakthrough…

A Bloomberg headline read: “Stock Soars as Firm Clones ‘Immortality’ Gene.”

Time Magazine titled its coverage “The Immortality Enzyme.”

The San Jose Mercury News wrote a story titled “Endless Youth?”

The biggest challenge still lies ahead

That challenge is to take an immortal iPS cell and direct it to become any one of the hundreds of cell types in the human body so that when those cells are ready to be injected back into the donor’s body, they would be no older than the day the donor was born.

Only after being programmed to become adult cells of a specific type would their biological clock start ticking.

In theory, by injecting age-zero Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs) into your body, derived from your own iPS cells, they would have the power to completely rejuvenate your entire cardiovascular system — thereby extending the warranty on your cardiovascular system— EACH TIME IT’S DONE!

It could also be the equivalent of a complete vascular transplant without surgery — and without the possibility of rejection.

This, my friend, could be the key to true IMMORTALITY.

Note: from Cryonics Asia, Ltd.

You can do what you want with any investment suggestions derived from other web site page links attached to this web site. Cryonics Asia, Ltd. does not give investment recommendations nor do we profit from any involvement with any commercial biotech company. It is not our intension to start peddling money making opportunities. But, according to our due diligence, this company is real and what they are doing has great implications for all Crayonists. Things that make Cryonic resuscitation feasible could be changing very fast. Whole body or just a neuropreservation choice may now take on a whole new dimension.

I don’t know of anyone getting a customized stem cell DNA targeted injection, of late, but this new stem cell research sure sounds exciting.

To date, Dr. West and his team at BioTime have developed proprietary processes to develop over 200 different cell types from iPS cells. Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs) discussed above are just one of these cell types.

It should be noted that, as far as we know, Dr. West’s company was the first publicly traded stem cell company to partner with Big Pharma.

BioTime’s neuroscience subsidiary will supply stem cells to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries for the purpose of developing treatments for retinal and neural degenerative diseases. Israel-based Teva, as you might know, is one of the biggest pharmaceutical companies in the world, with annual revenues in excess of $16 billion. Together, BioTime and Teva will develop and commercialize BioTime’s treatment for age-related macular degeneration, which is a growing concern for aging baby boomers.

The God Switch Company

BioTime (BTX) The key part of the scientific advancement — largely related to telomerase, the aging enzyme first cloned 20 years ago. The company that headlined those advances was Geron (GERN), which was the standard-bearer for stem cell research among publicly traded companies for a long time.

BioTime (BTX) helmed by Dr. Michael West, and was a founder of Geron and has been described as a pioneer of stem cell research.

This company’s strategy of pursuing multiple products and technologies using a set of seven subsidiaries, or that’s what BioTime had until they added an eighth subsidiary (BioTime Acquisition Corp) to buy some of the stem cell intellectual property from Geron.

Dr. Michael West has described a few of BioTime’s key products, which include a new cancer diagnostic test that could become a huge seller pending final FDA approval.

BioTime is a small company but not a ridiculously teensy one, with a market cap of close to $200 million, and the shares were recently up by a good 15-20% on their pending deal with Geron.

The 52 week range: $2.67 - $5.07

Current trading price $3.68

Related Tickers 4/5/2013 -- 4:00 PM

Some of the companies in this Stem Cell therapeutics space include: BTX, GERN, BCLI.OB, ACTC.OB, CUR, ISCC, MKGAY.PK, PSTI, STEM, TEVA, UTHR

Two Scientists have been recognized for a Stem Cell discovery and awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In 2007, Japanese researcher Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, and a researcher from the University of Wisconsin, James Thomson, published papers showing that four genes could actually transform adult human cells into an embryonic-like state. The prize was awarded for the scientists’ "discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent."

Four genes, within our DNA, were found that can be manipulated to turn any adult cells — skin cells, for example — into embryonic-like stem cells capable of developing into any cell in the human body.

Continuing this line of discovery, BioTime now has eight subsidiaries that are involved in a lot of different things, and each one is apparently a joint venture that helps to get outside funding. That, and BioTime’s work to expand cell lines that are available for researchers at low cost (but with royalties due on future products) gives quite a few ways for the science to “work” in a business sense (ie, to make money).

In terms of substantial new products from BioTime, it looks like they’re targeting late 2014/early 2015 as a key time period, that’s when they hope to get European approval for a their new cancer blood screening test, which would be a big deal (identifying genetic markers of cancer in the blood might be more effective and catch cancer much earlier than conventional screening like mammography or colonoscopy), and for a plastic surgery product called Renevia … and before that they hope to have launched clinical trials for an Age-related Macular Degeneration drug called OpReven that’s partnered with Teva (TEVA).

So, there are some potential catalysts out there, though from a look at the BioTime balance sheet it appears they’ll probably have to bring in some cash from a new partnership or raise money over the next couple quarters in some other way.

Reading their latest investor presentation, it sounds like they’re on the verge of some products that are large, real and addressable. Whether they have now “cracked the code” to repair and rejuvenate human cells that is yet to be fully reveled.

BioTime could make enough money licensing their cell lines and selling research materials to turn them into a steady cash generator who could push that cash into developing these really breakthrough rejuvenating cell product lines.

Would the real prospect of stem cell triggered immortality be a “Godsend”, financially or otherwise?

Maybe immortality would lead to the Earth being such a festering, overpopulated cesspool that none of us would want to live forever, I expect… but I can see that developments along the way to that hypothetical future, like all of the advancements in regenerative medicine to help your body repair itself from specific injuries or diseases, would certainly be welcomed by the marketplace … not least because the largest and wealthiest generation (the baby boomers) of the wealthiest country on earth is starting to face its own mortality.

In a recent article, on page 54 of the Feb 2013 issue of Life Extension magazine, Dr. West describes how he obtained $2,000,000 from the Life Extension Foundation to found ReCyte for the purpose of pursuing the use of pluripotent stem cells for the rejuvenation of heart and circulatory system tissue. ReCyte is a subsidiary of BioTime. It is significant that the LE Foundation was willing to invest big time for this endeavor.

BioTime facts

Headquarters (founded) Alameda, Calif. (1990)
Market Cap $234 million
Industry Biotechnology
Trailing-12-Month Revenue $4.3 million
Management CEO Dr. Michael West (since 2007)
CFO Peter Garcia (since 2011)
Return on Equity (average, past 3 years) (44.5%)
Cash/Debt $7.8 million / $0
Competitors B. Braun Melsungen
Baxter International

The above recent Life Extension magazine article featured another company International Stem Cell Corporation (ISCC): They are supposedly working on an alternative, more universally accepted stem cell that could be used in 80-90% of the population. International Stem Cell Corporation has developed a powerful new stem cell technology, callepart henogenesis that promises to significantly advance the field of regenerative medicine by addressing the problem of immune-rejection.

Another interesting Company in the stem cell research space is Advanced Cell Technology (ACTC) a leader in the field of regenerative medicine. ACTC today announced treatment of patients in the third patient cohort, in each of its two U.S. clinical trials for forms of macular degeneration. Patients in U.S. Clinical Trials were injected with 150,000 human embryonic stem cell-(hESC) derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

While stem cell research is certainly exciting, and the macular degeneration cure is real, selling “eternal life” may surly be viewed by serious institutional portfolio managers as ridiculous at best. But, what else is new?



The Business Promise of Cryonics

Will Russia show us the way forward?

Observations by Maria Konovalenko

Cryonics is an amazing opportunity to get a chance to find yourself in the future. I believe cryonics is the choice of truly smart people.

Yesterday, I stumbled upon this beautiful biographical story of Mike Darwin.. Mike Darwin is one of the best cryonics specialists in the world. His contribution to the science of cryonics is tremendous. It is very well described in the biography. And not only is it a personal story, but also quite a large part of the history of cryonics with its challenges and achievements. Read about dogs fully recovered from being kept at 5oC ( 41oF) for 5 hours and other fascinating experiments.

I believe it is crucial to have more experiments in cryonics. This is a great chance to life forever. Sadly, cryonics has quite a lot of challenges, which are not yet overcome. Probably, the worst thing is that people don’t see how fascinating the promise of cryonics is. I encourage everyone to promote cryonics and cryobiology. We have to change the existing situation and create an industry.

Cryonics may become the best business in the world.

dMy Visit to KrioRus – the First Cryonics Company in Europe and Asia

Yesterday I visited the facilities of the Russian cryonics company KrioRus, which are located just outside Moscow. That’s the huge dewar flask where the cryopreserved bodies are stored. It’s so big that one needs to climb up a ladder to peek through the steamy nitrogen. And in the picture below Alexei Turchin, a renowned futurologist and expert on global risks, and I are in front of the other dewar flask, now empty and waiting for the new cryo patients.

Big Tanks available in Russia

Ready to do Volume Business?

Maria Konovalenko • aging, anti aging, neuroscience, regeneration, longevity, cell therapy, gerontology, geriatrics, life extension, stem cell therapy, tissue engineering, telomerase, aging population, regenerative medicine, telomere, aging process, brasto, telomeres, gerontological, healthy aging, research on aging, SIRT1, stem cell articles, anti aging medicine, transhumanism, transhumanists, diet restriction, successful aging, aging and longevity, sirtuins, stem cells regenerative medicine, transhuman, telomerase activity, anti aging research, telomere length, telomeres aging, what is anti aging, human genome research, telomeres and aging, fight aging, longevity anti aging, longevity now, anti aging program, anti aging news, anti aging techniques, reverse the aging process, telomerase and aging, experimental gerontology, mechanisms of aging, negligible senescence, anti aging studies, biogerontology, gerontology articles, life extension research, anti aging process, lifespan extension, telomere research, immortalism, radical life extension, systems biology of aging, telomerase anti aging